Plant Recording in SP13 in 2012

Bert Reid


This year (2012) I decided to carry out a full survey of the vascular plants in the Worcestershire section of the 10x10 km square SP13. This area was primarily selected to update records for the Botanical Society for Britain and Ireland (BSBI) mapping project for the date class 2010 to 2019 in a part of the county where accurate boundaries are not easy to follow exactly on the ground.

The area surveyed is all within the Broadway parish, except for a very small area by the top of Fish Hill, where Worcestershire purchased part of Gloucestershire to create a parking and picnic site. This means that only parts of six tetrads are included, a little less than 10% of the hectad, although it feels like a lot more when climbing up and down Broadway Hill. Although it might be thought an insignificant part of Worcestershire, the Oolitic Limestone grasslands here are very important for locally scarce plants, and the area is directly connected to the main part of the Cotswold Hills to the south where many other rare and scarce plants are known, plants which could turn up here with luck.

I managed to find 542 species during the year. This compares with 604 species recorded between the start of the Worcestershire Flora Project in 1987 and the end of 2009. The 542 species are tabulated at the end of this report. The current records include 66 species not previously recorded in the area after 1986, suggesting that 128 post 1986 records have not been re-found. This seems to be a large number of losses, but many can be explained.

Lost Plants

The Worcestershire flora project ran from 1987 and never recorded more than 298 species in any year, that being 1992 when as well as the regular local recording by Terry Knight, a full flora outing was held there. It is almost impossible to fully cover the whole area at all seasons of a single year. In 2012 some plants must have simply been missed, especially plants only ever found once. Another reason for losses is changes to habitats. Fish Hill Quarry has changed significantly in recent years with the completion of quarrying, and plants like Deadly Nightshade, Blue Fleabane, Red Hemp-nettle, Corn Marigold and several garden escapes have disappeared. Arable fields have changed over the years, with increased use of fertilisers and herbicides. This almost certainly accounts for the loss of Venus’s Looking-glass and declines of a few other species. Another interesting loss is White Helleborine that was found in the Fish Hill picnic site between 1995 and 2006, although in the same site the Green-flowered Helleborine first noted here in 1992 is still present. Devil’s-bit Scabious was recorded in several grassy sites between 1979 and 1988, but has not been noted since, and changes to grassland management may be a factor.

The main groups of losses are clearly garden escapes and difficult or critical plants. About 45 species are obvious garden escapes or throw-outs. These plants are often casuals which change from year to year with horticultural fashions and with building policies. There have been significant changes in eastern part of Broadway, with many buildings renovated, and also a number of conversions in the Middle Hill House area. These changes have not only altered the species present but have also effected decisions about which plants are worth recording. The difficult and critical plants such as Hawkweeds, Eyebrights, Poplars, Willows, Roses, Brambles and Dandelions are outside the scope of most recorders, and even the most expert will only confidently deal with a few genera. This year I have done what I can with these, but there are still 25 taxa not found again.

Other losses are a miscellany of different species and reasons. Plants such as Silver Hair-grass, Pignut, Broom, Imperforate St.Johns-wort and Trailing St.Johns-wort are not usually found in calcareous areas but more often seen on more acid soils. Weather can be another reason. 2012 had a very dry spring and early summer but then became very wet. This followed a number of very dry summers, and may have accounted for failure to find Water-plantain, Marsh Marigold, Tufted Forget-me-not, Water Chickweed, Water-cress, Lesser Spearwort, Ragged Robin and Horned Pondweed. A number of lost plants had only been recorded at tetrad level before, since they were widespread in the county, making it difficult to follow up previous records.

Records before 1987 are much more difficult to assess. A further seven species were found in the period 1960-1986 but were not seen in 2012 – Downy Birch, Barberry, Wood Small-reed, Winter Aconite, Garden Peony, Adder’s-tongue and Pepper-saxifrage. These were all recorded by reliable botanists in well-defined areas. Earlier records are much more of a problem. Some are of very doubtful dates such as the Chalk Milkwort and other plants recorded by Hardaker from Broadway between 1902 and 1970. Others are not located sufficiently accurately to be sure they are in this hectad or even within the county. The 1898 record for Bird’s-nest Orchid was on a Worcestershire Naturalists Club field meeting from Buckland to Broadway, so could be in Gloucestershire. The final problem is doubts about identification. Cheddar Pink seems highly unlikely and Ribbed Melilot may have been confused with Tall Melilot. Despite the difficulties some of the historic records may re-appear, and I would not be surprised if plants like Chalk Milkwort, Fine-leaved Sandwort, Autumn Lady’s-tresses and Yellow Bird’s-nest crop up in the future. The next section on gains shows how plants with old records can be re-found with a bit of luck and effort.

Plant Gains

Eight of the gains have been recorded in the area prior to 1987. Five are of relatively recent times between 1979 and 1984. It is perhaps not surprising that Sainfoin, Norway Spruce, Grass Vetchling, Greater Butterfly-orchid and Green-winged Orchid have been found, as all of these are not rare in Worcestershire. My record of Yellow-wort from near Fish Hill Quarry had not been recorded since 1909 and was also not unexpected, but a small patch of Wood Vetch in Broadway Wood, last noted in 1908 was rather more of a surprise. Although this species is well-known further south in the Cotswolds and in parts of west Worcestershire, there have been no recent records in eastern Worcestershire. The oldest re-find for the hectad was Corn Buttercup, not seen since 1862 until I found a single plant in a bean field between Broadway Town and the A44. This was surprising for various reasons. Corn Buttercup is a scarce plant selected by the BSBI for checking in 2012, and I had followed up several old Worcestershire records without success. SP13 in Worcestershire has very little arable and this field was the only one with a crop suitable for the plant. Finally the plant has suffered such a great decline in recent years that it is now considered critically endangered nationally.

The other gains had never been recorded in the survey area. The most exciting plant of the year was Frog Orchid. I cannot claim this as my find, as it was spotted by Roger Maskew. He found it in steep calcareous pasture on Armley Bank, where he counted seven plants in two spots. He kindly told me of the find, so a week later I went to the same spots, where I found just four plants. A month later I found another two further down the slope. This was the first record in Worcestershire since a single plant was found in Bredon Hill fort in 1979, but this is in the East Gloucestershire vice-county and we need to go back to 1949 for the last record for our vice-county.

The other gains pale into relative insignificance. The A44 at Fish Hill provided quite a lot of new records. The salted edges of the main road produced Danish Scurveygrass, Buck’s-horn Plantain, Reflexed Saltmarsh-grass and Lesser Sea-spurrey, while the gravelly escape lane produced a surprise with a few plants of Sharp-leaved Fluellen. The salted road edge plants have increased for several years along Worcestershire’s main roads and it was good to record the extension of range in the far southeast, but the source of the Fluellen is not obvious. A single Round-leaved Fluellen was new in the same bean field as the Corn Buttercup, but despite considerable hunting, the Sharp-leaved could not be found there, but Black Mustard was added.

Common Centaury was found to be fairly widespread in road banks on the A44 in two monads, and I was surprised it had not been recorded before, but a small patch of Viper’s Bugloss by a footpath east of the underpass was more exceptional, as was a single plant of Hawkweed Oxtongue on the road bank. The Slender St.John’s-wort hidden away in the woods near Spring Hill House made up for the failure to find the Trailing St.John’s-wort, a plant of similar habitat requirements. Another surprising find was a few plants of Bristle Club-rush, growing with Toad Rush in a small damp flush area in rough grassland.

More detailed recording of difficult or critical plants accounts for the two subspecies of Tufted Hair-grass, the splitting of Glabrous and Common Whitlowgrass, Autumn Hawkweed, the hybrid between Hedge Bedstraw and Lady’s Bedstraw, and five Dandelion species. Other new plants include Chicory probably planted in improved grassland, a few Buckwheat plants in the bare edge of a flax field, and Eastern Rocket by a footway in Broadway Town. The other additions are nearly all garden plant escapes or alien trees and shrubs surviving in the wild. It is not appropriate to list these here, since a different set will probably turn up next year, but I was interested to see a single plant of Martagon Lily growing well away from any habitation half way up Coneygree Lane.

Plants found again

Nearly 480 plants are common to both the 1987-2009 and 2010-2012 periods. Here I will concentrate on the less widespread native or long established plants, especially those characteristic of the local habitats in SP13.

Limestone grassland is the most important habitat in SP13, and is characteristic of the higher parts of Broadway Hill. The richest areas are the SSSI grasslands by the Cotswold Way footpath and Armley Bank, both areas being unimproved sheep pasture. In Worcestershire, only Bredon Hill has similar geology. The unusual plants found here this year include Horseshoe Vetch, Squinancywort, Clustered Bellflower, Kidney Vetch, Carline Thistle, Autumn Gentian, Small Scabious, Common Rock-rose, Crested Hair-grass, Spiny Restharrow, and the more widespread Dwarf Thistle, Eyebright, Dropwort, Harebell, Spring Sedge, Meadow Oat-grass, Downy Oat-grass, Quaking Grass, Upright Brome and Tor-grass. On the lower slopes of the hill towards Broadway, the grassland is on landslip geology and has often been fertilised, giving a much less interesting flora. North of the A44, the grassland is again often improved, but here the locally uncommon Sheep’s Sorrel and Tormentil were found in small quantity.

The other major habitat in the survey area is woodland. Most of the woodland is old plantations, and there is little evidence of true ancient woodland. A typical local woodland is The Bank, stretching east and south above Middle Hill House. This has much Beech and Sycamore, with little shrub layer, and a restricted ground flora with Dog’s Mercury dominant. Yew, Woodruff, Sanicle and Wall Lettuce are locally frequent. Here and in similar local woods there are scattered Nettle-leaved Bellflower, Common Twayblade, Common Valerian and a good selection of ferns including Lady Fern and Hart’s-tongue. A special mention should be made of Coneygree Lane, which has a very different flora including Moschatel, Herb Paris, Wood Speedwell and Early-purple Orchid.

Aquatic and wetland plants are rare, with most interest around small flushes from springs and small streams trickling or rushing downhill. A flush in pasture above Broadway has a little Marsh Arrowgrass, Common Spike-rush and Small Sweet-grass in the abundant Rushes and Opposite-leaved Golden-saxifrage is found along the stream near Broadwaywood Cottages. The only other aquatic plant worth a mention is Great Horsetail, found in a number of spots where small streams reach the base of slopes.

Several locally rare plants were only found in one or two sites. Fern-grass turned up In Broadway town and on the A44; Small Toadflax on an arable edge and in the escape lane of the A44; Basil Thyme and Wild Mignonette both by the edge of Fish Hill Quarry; Dwarf Spurge in the bean field between Broadway and the A44; Round-leaved Crane’s-bill on the top of a stone wall beside the A44; a small patch of Common Gromwell on the woodland bank of the track from Middle Hill House by The Bank; and Rue-leaved Saxifrage on mossy roof or wall tops at Kites Nest and in Broadway town. Also in Broadway town were Common Stork’s-bill and Keel-fruited Cornsalad. The only site for Broad-leaved Helleborine was only just in the hectad on the track from Snowshill Road to Kite’s Nest, where 2 or 3 plants were on the edge of a fairly large colony mainly in SO93.

Just a few other plants are worthy of mention. The Ample-toothed Hawkweed has only been recorded in Worcestershire in SP13. It is a nationally rare introduction and was first confirmed locally in 2005 along the track from Middle Hill. This year I re-found the original plants and added three further spots nearby. Chinese Mugwort is an alien spreading from the London area and was first found in Worcestershire at the start of the track to Spring Hill House in 1990. It is still present in exactly the same spot, but the second county site had to wait until 2010 when I found it in two patches in Fladbury parish near Spring Hill Farm. Perhaps we need to hunt out more sites called Spring Hill! The final plant is the introduced True Service-tree by the verge at an edge of an orchard at the top of Broadway High Street. This was first formally recorded in 2011, although local people were aware of it much earlier.


This report shows some of the difficulties in recording and assessing the flora of a defined area. The past history of the site is often imperfectly known, even during the flora project period, and in earlier times the record is usually very poor. Even when well-localised records are available it is not always certain that losses are genuine. Plants are not always visible in a single year. The habitat may be temporarily unsuitable, with different crops in arable, grasslands grazed by the wrong amount or at the wrong time, small water features too dry or too wet, and woodlands cleared or replanted. Annual plants have good and bad seeding years and are well known to fluctuate in numbers dramatically. Other plants are known to rely on a seed bank or perennial underground system for many years. So not finding a plant is not necessarily mean a loss. Gains can be equally spurious. Just because nobody has recorded something before doesn’t mean it wasn’t there. Earlier botanist may have looked in the wrong place or wrong season, or may not have had the skills to recognise the plant. We all have blind spots with plant identification, and we all occasionally make silly, careless errors.

Whatever difficulties there are in assessing change, it is clear that the Broadway Hill area is still a very important part of Worcestershire’s flora. There are still a large number of rare or uncommon native plants where this area is the county stronghold. Most of the change recorded in 2012 gives a reasonably optimistic picture, with most losses being of casuals or non-native species.

Full list of 2012 species recorded

Acer campestre - Field Maple

Acer platanoides - Norway Maple

Acer pseudoplatanus - Sycamore

Achillea millefolium - Yarrow

Achillea ptarmica - Sneezewort

Adoxa moschatellina - Moschatel

Aegopodium podagraria - Ground-elder

Aesculus hippocastanum - Horse-chestnut

Aethusa cynapium ssp. cynapium - Fool's Parsley

Agrimonia eupatoria - Agrimony

Agrostis capillaris - Common Bent

Agrostis gigantea - Black Bent

Agrostis stolonifera - Creeping Bent

Ajuga reptans - Bugle

Alcea rosea - Hollyhock

Alchemilla mollis - Soft Lady's-mantle

Alliaria petiolata - Garlic Mustard

Allium ursinum - Ramsons

Allium vineale - Wild Onion

SandAlnus cordata - Italian Alder

Alnus glutinosa - Alder

Alnus incana - Grey Alder

Alopecurus myosuroides - Black-grass

Alopecurus pratensis - Meadow Foxtail

Anacamptis pyramidalis - Pyramidal Orchid

Anacanptis morio - Green-winged Orchid

Anagallis arvensis ssp. arvensis - Scarlet Pimpernel

Anemone nemorosa - Wood Anemone

Angelica sylvestris - Wild Angelica

Anisantha sterilis - Barren Brome

Anthemis punctata - Sicilian Chamomile

Anthoxanthum odoratum - Sweet Vernal Grass

Anthriscus sylvestris - Cow Parsley

Anthyllis vulneraria - Kidney Vetch

Antirrhinum majus - Snapdragon

Aphanes arvensis - Parsley-piert

Apium nodiflorum - Fool's Water-cress

Aquilegia vulgaris - Columbine

Arabidopsis thaliana - Thale Cress

Arctium lappa - Greater Burdock

Arctium minus - Lesser Burdock

Arenaria leptoclados - Small Thyme-leaved Sandwort

Arenaria serpyllifolia - Thyme-leaved Sandwort

Armoracia rusticana - Horse-radish

Arrhenatherum elatius - False Oat-grass

Artemisia verlotiorum - Chinese Mugwort

Artemisia vulgaris - Mugwort

Arum maculatum - Lords-and-ladies

Asparagus officinalis - Garden Asparagus

Aspelenium scolopendrium - Hart's-tongue

Asperula cynanchica - Squinancywort

Aster x salignus - Common Michaelmas-daisy

Athyrium filix-femina - Lady Fern

Atriplex patula - Common Orache

Atriplex prostrata - Spear-leaved Orache

Avena fatua - Wild-oat

Avenula pratense - Meadow Oat-grass

Avenula pubescens - Downy Oat-grass

Ballota nigra - Black Horehound

Bellis perennis - Daisy

Betula pendula - Silver Birch

Blackstonia perfoliata - Yellow-wort

Brachyglottis x jubar - Shrub Ragwort

Brachypodium pinnatum - Tor-grass

Brachypodium sylvaticum - False-brome

Brassica napus - Rape

Brassica nigra - Black Mustard

Briza media - Quaking-grass

Bromopsis erecta - Upright Brome

Bromopsis ramosa - Hairy Brome

Bromus hordeaceus - Soft-brome

Bryonia dioica - White Bryony

Buddleja davidii - Butterfly-bush

Buxus sempervirens - Box

Calendula officinalis - Pot Marigold

Calystegia sepium - Hedge Bindweed

Calystegia silvatica - Large Bindweed

Campanula glomerata - Clustered Bellflower

Campanula poscharskyana - Trailing Bellflower

Campanula rotundifolia - Harebell

Campanula trachelium - Nettle-leaved Bellflower

Capsella bursa-pastoris - Shepherd's-purse

Cardamine flexuosa - Wavy Bitter-cress

Cardamine hirsuta - Hairy Bitter-cress

Cardamine pratensis - Cuckoo-flower

Carduus crispus - Welted Thistle

Carduus nutans - Musk Thistle

Carex caryophyllea - Spring Sedge

Carex flacca - Glaucous Sedge

Carex hirta - Hairy Sedge

Carex otrubae - False Fox-sedge

Carex pendula - Pendulus Sedge

Carex sylvatica - Wood-sedge

Carlina vulgaris - Carline Thistle

Carpinus betulus - Hornbeam

Castanea sativa - Sweet Chestnut

Catapodium rigidum - Fern-grass

Centaurea debeauxii - Chalk Knapweed

Centaurea montana - Perennial Cornflower

Centaurea scabiosa - Greater Knapweed

Centaurium erythraea - Common Centaury

Centranthus ruber - Red Valerian

Cerastium fontanum - Common Mouse-ear

Cerastium glomeratum - Sticky Mouse-ear

Cerastium tomentosum - Snow-in-summer

Chaenorhinum minus - Small Toadflax

Chaerophyllum temulum - Rough Chervil

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana - Lawson's Cypress

Chamerion angustifolium - Rosebay Willowherb

Chelidonium majus - Greater Celandine

Chenopodium album - Fat-hen

Chenopodium polyspermum - Many-seeded Goosefoot

Chenopodium rubrum - Red Goosefoot

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium - Opposite-leaved Golden-saxifrage

Cichorium intybus - Chicory

Circaea lutetiana - Enchanter's-nightshade

Cirsium acaule - Dwarf Thistle

Cirsium arvense - Creeping Thistle

Cirsium eriophorum - Woolly Thistle

Cirsium palustre - Marsh Thistle

Cirsium vulgare - Spear Thistle

Clematis vitalba - Traveller's Joy

Clinopodium acinos - Basil Thyme

Clinopodium vulgare - Wild Basil

Cochlearia danica - Danish Scurvygrass

Coeloglossum viride - Frog Orchid

Conium maculatum - Hemlock

Convolvulus arvensis - Field Bindweed

Cornus sanguinea - Dogwood

Cornus sericea - Red-osier Dogwood

Corylus avellana - Hazel

Cotoneaster horizontalis - Wall Cotoneaster

Cotoneaster simonsii - Himalayan Cotoneaster

Crataegus laevigata - Midland Hawthorn

Crataegus laevigata x monogyna - Hybrid Hawthorn

Crataegus monogyna - Hawthorn

Crepis capillaris - Smooth Hawk's-beard

Crepis vesicaria - Beaked Hawk's-beard

Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora - Montbretia

Crocus tommasinianus - Early Crocus

Cyclamen hederifolium - Cyclamen

Cymbalaria muralis - Ivy-leaved Toadflax

Cynosurus cristatus - Crested Dog's-tail

Dactylis glomerata - Cock's-foot

Dactylorhiza fuchsii - Common Spotted-orchid

Daphne laureola - Spurge-laurel

Daucus carota ssp. carota - Wild Carrot

Deschampsia cespitosa ssp. cespitosa - Tufted Hair-grass

Deschampsia cespitosa ssp. parviflora - Tufted Hair-grass

Dianthus deltoides - Maiden Pink

Digitalis purpurea - Foxglove

Dipsacus fullonum - Wild Teasel

Dryopteris affinis - Golden-scaled Male-fern

Dryopteris borreri - Borrer's Male-fern

Dryopteris dilatata - Broad Buckler-fern

Dryopteris filix-mas - Male-fern

Echium vulgare - Viper's Bugloss

Eleocharis palustris ssp. vulgaris - Common Spike-rush

Elymus caninus - Bearded Couch

Elytrigia repens - Common Couch

Epilobium ciliatum - American Willowherb

Epilobium hirsutum - Great Willowherb

Epilobium montanum - Broad-leaved Willowherb

Epilobium obscurum - Short-fruited Willowherb

Epilobium parviflorum - Hoary Willowherb

Epilobium tetragonum - Square-stalked Willowherb

Epipactis helleborine - Broad-leaved Helleborine

Epipactis phyllanthes - Green-flowered Helleborine

Equisetum arvense - Field Horsetail

Equisetum telmateia - Great Horsetail

Erodium cicutarium - Common Stork's-bill

Erophila glabrescens - Glabrous Whitlowgrass

Erophila verna - Common Whitlowgrass

Euonymus europaeus - Spindle

Eupatorium cannabinum - Hemp-agrimony

Euphorbia exigua - Dwarf Spurge

Euphorbia helioscopia - Sun Spurge

Euphorbia peplus - Petty Spurge

Euphrasia confusa x nemorosa - a hybrid Eyebright

Euphrasia nemorosa - Common Eyebright

Euphrasia sp. - Eyebright

Fagopyrum esculentum - Buckwheat

Fagus sylvatica - Beech

Fallopia baldschuanica - Russian Vine

Fallopia convolvulus - Black Bindweed

Fallopia japonica - Japanese Knotweed

Festuca ovina - Sheep's-fescue

Festuca rubra - Red Fescue

Ficaria verna - Lesser Celandine

Ficaria verna ssp. fertilis - a Lesser Celandine

Filipendula ulmaria - Meadowsweet

Filipendula vulgaris - Dropwort

Fragaria vesca - Wild Strawberry

Fraxinus excelsior - Ash

Fumaria officinalis - Common Fumitory

Fumaria officinalis ssp. wirtgenii - a Common Fumitory

Galanthus nivalis - Snowdrop

Galega officinalis - Goat's-rue

Galeopsis tetrahit agg. - Common Hemp-nettle [agg.]

Galeopsis tetrahit sens.str. - Common Hemp-nettle

Galium album - Hedge Bedstraw

Galium x pomeranicum - Hybrid Yellow Bedstraw

Galium aparine - Cleavers

Galium odoratum - Woodruff

Galium verum - Lady's Bedstraw

Gentianella amarella - Autumn Gentian

Geranium dissectum - Cut-leaved Crane's-bill

Geranium x oxonianum - Druce's Crane's-bill

Geranium molle - Dove's-foot Crane's-bill

Geranium pratense - Meadow Crane's-bill

Geranium pusillum - Small-flowered Crane's-bill

Geranium robertianum - Herb-robert

Geranium rotundifolium - Round-leaved Crane's-bill

Geum urbanum - Herb Bennet

Glechoma hederacea - Ground-ivy

Glyceria declinata - Small Sweet-grass

Glyceria fluitans - Floating Sweet-grass

Glyceria notata - Plicate Sweet-grass

Hedera helix ssp. helix - Common Ivy

Helianthemum nummularium - Common Rock-rose

Helleborus foetidus - Stinking Hellebore

Helminthotheca echiodes - Bristly Oxtongue

Heracleum sphondylium - Hogweed

Hieracium argillaceum - Southern Hawkweed

Hieracium consociatum - Sociable Hawkweed

Hieracium sabaudum - Autumn Hawkweed

Hieracium sect. Sabauda - a Hawkweed

Hieracium sp. - a Hawkweed

Hieracium sylvularum - Ample-toothed Hawkweed

Hippocrepis comosa - Horseshoe Vetch

Holcus lanatus - Yorkshire-fog

Holcus mollis - Creeping Soft-grass

Hordeum murinum - Wall Barley

Hordeum secalinum - Meadow Barley

Hyacinthoides non-scripta - Bluebell

Hyacinthoides x massartiana - Hybrid Bluebell

Hypericum androsaemum - Tutsan

Hypericum calycinum - Rose-of-Sharon

Hypericum hirsutum - Hairy St. John's-wort

Hypericum perforatum - Perforate St. John's-wort

Hypericum pulchrum - Slender St. John's-wort

Hypericum tetrapterum - Square-stalked St. John's-wort

Hypochaeris radicata - Cat's-ear

Ilex aquifolium - Holly

Ilex x altaclerensis - Highclere Holly

Inula conyzae - Ploughman's-spikenard

Iris foetidissima - Stinking Iris

Isolepis setacea - Bristle Club-rush

Juglans regia - Walnut

Juncus articulatus - Jointed Rush

Juncus bufonius - Toad Rush

Juncus conglomeratus - Compact Rush

Juncus effusus - Soft Rush

Juncus inflexus - Hard Rush

Kickxia elatine - Sharp-leaved Fluellen

Kickxia spuria - Round-leaved Fluellen

Knautia arvensis - Field Scabious

Koeleria macrantha - Crested Hair-grass

Lactuca serriola - Prickly Lettuce

Lamiastrum galeobdolon ssp. argentatum - a Yellow Archangel

Lamium album - White Dead-nettle

Lamium amplexicaule - Hen-bit Dead-nettle

Lamium maculatum - Spotted Dead-nettle

Lamium purpureum - Red Dead-nettle

Lapsana communis - Nipplewort

Larix decidua - Larch

Larix x marschlinsii - Hybrid Larch

Lathyrus grandiflorus - Two-flowered Everlasting-pea

Lathyrus nissolia - Grass Vetchling

Lathyrus pratensis - Meadow Vetchling

Leontodon hispidus - Rough Hawkbit

Leontodon saxatilis - Lesser Hawkbit

Lepidium coronopus - Swine-cress

Lepidium didymum - Lesser Swine-cress

Leucanthemum vulgare - Oxeye Daisy

Leucanthemum x superbum - Shasta Daisy

Ligustrum ovalifolium - Garden Privet

Ligustrum vulgare - Wild Privet

Lilium martagon - Martagon Lily

Linaria purpurea - Purple Toadflax

Linum catharticum - Fairy Flax

Linum usitatissimum - Flax

Lithospermum officinale - Common Gromwell

Lobelia erinus - Garden Lobelia

Lolium multiflorum - Italian Rye-grass

Lolium perenne - Perennial Rye-grass

Lonicera nitida - Wilson's Honeysuckle

Lonicera periclymenum - Honeysuckle

Lotus corniculatus - Common Bird's-foot-trefoil

Lotus pedunculatus - Large Bird's-foot-trefoil

Lunaria annua - Honesty

Luzula campestris - Field Wood-rush

Lycium barbarum - Duke of Argyll's Teaplant

Lysimachia nummularia - Creeping-Jenny

Lysimachia punctata - Dotted Loosestrife

Mahonia aquifolium - Oregon Grape

Malus pumila - Apple

Malus sylvestris - Crab Apple

Malva moschata - Musk-mallow

Malva neglecta - Dwarf Mallow

Malva sylvestris - Common Mallow

Malva x clementii - Clements Tree-mallow

Matricaria chamomilla - Scented Mayweed

Matricaria discoidea - Pineapple Weed

Meconopsis cambrica - Welsh Poppy

Medicago arabica - Spotted Medick

Medicago lupulina - Black Medick

Medicago sativa ssp. sativa - Lucerne

Melica uniflora - Wood Melick

Melilotus altissimus - Tall Melilot

Melissa officinalis - Balm

Mentha aquatica - Water Mint

Mentha arvensis - Corn Mint

Mentha x villosa - Apple-mint

Mercurialis perennis - Dog's Mercury

Milium effusum - Wood Millet

Moehringia trinervia - Three-nerved Sandwort

Mycelis muralis - Wall Lettuce

Myosotis arvensis - Field Forget-me-not

Myosotis sylvatica - Wood Forget-me-not

Neottia ovata - Common Twayblade

Nigella damascena - Love-in-a-mist

Odontites vernus - Red Bartsia

Onobrychis viciifolia - Sainfoin

Ononis repens - Common Restharrow

Ononis spinosa - Spiny Restharrow

Ophrys apifera - Bee Orchid

Orchis mascula - Early-purple Orchid

Origanum vulgare - Wild Marjoram

Oxalis acetosella - Wood-sorrel

Oxalis corniculata - Procumbent Yellow-sorrel

Oxalis exilis - Least Yellow-sorrel

Papaver dubium - Long-headed Poppy

Papaver lecoqii - Yellow-juiced Poppy

Papaver rhoeas - Common Poppy

Papaver somniferum - Opium Poppy

Parietaria judaica - Pellitory-of-the-Wall

Paris quadrifolia - Herb Paris

Pastinaca sativa - Wild Parsnip

Pentaglottis sempervirens - Green Alkanet

Persicaria capitata - Pink-headed Persicaria

Persicaria lapathifolia - Pale Persicaria

Persicaria maculosa - Redshank

Phleum bertolonii - Smaller Cat's-tail

Phleum pratense sens.str. - Timothy

Phragmites australis - Common Reed

Picea abies - Norway Spruce

Picea sitchensis - Sitka Spruce

Picris hieracioides - Hawkweed Oxtongue

Pilosella aurantiaca - Fox-and-cubs

Pilosella officinarum - Mouse-ear-hawkweed

Pimpinella saxifraga - Burnet-saxifrage

Pinus sylvestris - Scots Pine

Plantago coronopus - Buck's-horn Plantain

Plantago lanceolata - Ribwort Plantain

Plantago major - Greater Plantain

Plantago media - Hoary Plantain

Platanthera chlorantha - Greater Butterfly-orchid

Poa angustifolia - Narrow-leaved Meadow-grass

Poa annua - Annual Meadow-grass

Poa compressa - Flattened Meadow-grass

Poa humilis - Spreading Meadow-grass

Poa nemoralis - Wood Meadow-grass

Poa pratensis - Smooth Meadow-grass

Poa trivialis - Rough Meadow-grass

Polygala vulgaris - Common Milkwort

Polygonum arenastrum - Equal-leaved Knotgrass

Polygonum aviculare - Knotgrass

Polystichum setiferum - Soft Shield-fern

Populus alba - White Poplar

Populus x canescens - Grey Poplar

Populus nigra fastigiate cultivars - a Black-poplar

Populus x canadensis - Hybrid Black Poplar

Potentilla anserina - Silverweed

Potentilla erecta - Tormentil

Potentilla reptans - Creeping Cinquefoil

Potentilla sterilis - Barren Strawberry

Poterium sanguisorba ssp. sanguisorba - Salad Burnet

Primula veris - Cowslip

Primula vulgaris - Primrose

Prunella vulgaris - Selfheal

Prunus avium - Wild Cherry

Prunus domestica - Wild Plum

Prunus laurocerasus - Cherry Laurel

Prunus spinosa - Blackthorn

Pseudofumaria lutea - Yellow Corydalis

Pteridium aquilinum - Bracken

Puccinellia distans - Reflexed Saltmarsh-grass

Pulmonaria officinalis - Lungwort

Quercus x rosacea - Hybrid Oak

Quercus robur - Pedunculate Oak

Ranunculus acris - Meadow Buttercup

Ranunculus arvensis - Corn Buttercup

Ranunculus auricomus - Goldilocks Buttercup

Ranunculus bulbosus - Bulbous Buttercup

Ranunculus repens - Creeping Buttercup

Reseda lutea - Wild Mignonette

Reseda luteola - Weld

Rhinanthus minor - Yellow-rattle

Ribes rubrum - Red Currant

Ribes uva-crispa - Gooseberry

Robinia pseudoacacia - False Acacia

Rosa arvensis - Field Rose

Rosa x dumalis - a hybrid Rose

Rosa canina Group Transitoriae - Dog Rose

Rosa multiflora - Many-flowered Rose

Rosa rubiginosa - Sweet Briar

Rubus armeniacus - a bramble

Rubus caesius - Dewberry

Rubus cockburnianus - White-stemmed Bramble

Rubus fruticosus agg. - Bramble

Rubus idaeus - Raspberry

Rubus ulmifolius - a bramble

Rumex acetosa - Common Sorrel

Rumex acetosella - Sheep's Sorrel

Rumex conglomeratus - Clustered Dock

Rumex crispus - Curled Dock

Rumex x pratensis - a dock

Rumex obtusifolius - Broad-leaved Dock

Rumex sanguineus - Wood Dock

Sagina filicaulis - Slender Pearlwort

Sagina procumbens - Procumbent Pearlwort

Salix alba - White Willow

Salix caprea - Goat Willow

Salix cinerea - Grey Willow

Salix fragilis - Crack Willow

Salix viminalis - Osier

Sambucus nigra - Elder

Sanicula europaea - Sanicle

Saxifraga tridactylites - Rue-leaved Saxifrage

Scabiosa columbaria - Small Scabious

Schedonorus arundinaceus - Tall Fescue

Schedonorus giganteus - Giant Fescue

Scorzoneroides autumnalis - Autumnal Hawkbit

Scrophularia auriculata - Water Figwort

Scrophularia nodosa - Common Figwort

Sedum acre - Biting Stonecrop

Sedum album - White Stonecrop

Sedum spurium - Caucasian-stonecrop

Sempervivum tectorum - House-leek

Senecio erucifolius - Hoary Ragwort

Senecio jacobaea - Common Ragwort

Senecio vulgaris - Groundsel

Sherardia arvensis - Field Madder

Silene dioica - Red Campion

Silene x hampeana - Hybrid Campion

Silene latifolia - White Campion

Silene vulgaris - Bladder Campion

Sinapis arvensis - Charlock

Sison amomum - Stone Parsley

Sisymbrium officinale - Hedge Mustard

Sisymbrium orientale - Eastern Rocket

Solanum dulcamara - Bittersweet

Solanum nigrum - Black Nightshade

Soleirolia soleirolii - Mind-your-own-business

Solidago canadensis - Canadian Goldenrod

Sonchus arvensis - Perennial Sow-thistle

Sonchus asper - Prickly Sow-thistle

Sonchus oleraceus - Smooth Sow-thistle

Sorbus aria - Whitebeam

Sorbus aucuparia - Rowan

Sorbus domestica - Service-tree

Spergularia marina - Lesser Sea-spurrey

Stachys sylvatica - Hedge Woundwort

Stellaria graminea - Lesser Stitchwort

Stellaria holostea - Greater Stitchwort

Stellaria media - Common Chickweed

Symphoricarpos albus - Snowberry

Symphytum x uplandicum - Russian Comfrey

Symphytum officinale - Common Comfrey

Syringa vulgaris - Lilac

Tamus communis - Black Bryony

Tanacetum parthenium - Feverfew

Tanacetum vulgare - Tansy

Taraxacum boekmanii - Bokman's Dandelion

Taraxacum densilobum - Close-lobed Dandelion

Taraxacum hamatum - Hook-lobed Dandelion

Taraxacum lacistophyllum - Cut-leaved Dandelion

Taraxacum laticordatum - Decumbent Dandelion

Taraxacum oblongatum - Oblong-leaved Dandelion

Taraxacum oxoniense - Oxford Dandelion

Taraxacum pannucium - Green-stalked Dandelion

Taraxacum pseudohamatum - False Hook-lobed Dandelion

Taraxacum rhamphodes - Robust Dandelion

Taraxacum sp. - Dandelion agg.

Taraxacum subbracteatum - Dark-bracted Dandelion

Taraxacum subhamatum - Large Hook-lobed Dandelion

Taxus baccata - Yew

Thuja plicata - Western Red-cedar

Thymus polytrichus - Wild Thyme

Tilia cordata - Small-leaved Lime

Tilia cordata x platyphyllos (T. x vulgaris) - Lime

Tilia platyphyllos - Large-leaved Lime

Torilis japonica - Upright Hedge-parsley

Tragopogon pratensis - Goat's-beard

Tragopogon pratensis ssp. minor - Goat's-beard

Trifolium campestre - Hop Trefoil

Trifolium dubium - Lesser Trefoil

Trifolium hybridum - Alsike Clover

Trifolium medium - Zigzag Clover

Trifolium pratense - Red Clover

Trifolium repens - White Clover

Triglochin palustris - Marsh Arrowgrass

Tripleurospermum inodorum - Scentless Mayweed

Trisetum flavescens - Yellow Oat-grass

Triticum aestivum - Bread Wheat

Tussilago farfara - Colt's-foot

Typha latifolia - Bulrush

Ulex europaeus - Gorse

Ulmus glabra - Wych Elm

Ulmus procera - English Elm

Urtica dioica - Common Nettle

Valeriana officinalis - Common Valerian

Valeriana officinalis ssp. sambucifolia - Common Valerian

Valerianella carinata - Keeled-fruited Cornsalad

Verbascum nigrum - Dark Mullein

Verbascum thapsus - Great Mullein

Veronica agrestis - Green Field-speedwell

Veronica arvensis - Wall Speedwell

Veronica beccabunga - Brooklime

Veronica chamaedrys - Germander Speedwell

Veronica filiformis - Slender Speedwell

Veronica hederifolia ssp. hederifolia - an Ivy-leaved Speedwell

Veronica hederifolia ssp. lucorum - and Ivy-leaved Speedwell

Veronica montana - Wood Speedwell

Veronica persica - Common Field-speedwell

Veronica serpyllifolia - Thyme-leaved Speedwell

Viburnum lantana - Wayfaring-tree

Viburnum opulus - Guelder-rose

Vicia cracca - Tufted Vetch

Vicia hirsuta - Hairy Tare

Vicia sativa ssp. segetalis - Common Vetch

Vicia sepium - Bush Vetch

Vicia sylvatica - Wood Vetch

Vicia tetrasperma - Smooth Tare

Vinca major - Greater Periwinkle

Viola arvensis - Field Pansy

Viola hirta - Hairy Violet

Viola odorata - Sweet Violet

Viola reichenbachiana - Early Dog-violet

Viola riviniana - Common Dog-violet

Viola x wittrockiana - Garden Pansy